im Wald Farm Geauga County, Northeast
Ohio since 1995
The original Crabbet/Maynesboro/Kellogg
mare families: Foundation of a unique North American gene pool one
hundred years in the making
Rick Synowski Copyright 1992 Used by permission of Rick Synowski
from CMK Heritage Catalogue Volume III
reflects the CMK dam line picture before the 1993 revision of the CMK
CMK ARABIAN HORSES have come to represent a minority breeding group today,
CMK foundation mare lines hold fast to their international domination of
lists of leading dams of champions. Their production records, some accomplished
by mares now deceased, may never be equaled. The character, type and breeding
of such celebrated mares must inevitably be diminished and disappear when
out crossing to stallions of other breeding groups predominates.
horsewoman Faye Thompson, whose father Claude Thompson introduced the Arabian
horse into Oregon nearly 60 years ago, observes that "modern Arabian horses
are good horses, but they've lost that classic, desert look that used to
excite me so. Modern horses don't get me excited the way the old ones did"
[CMK Record, Spring 1989].
It is to be hoped the classic desert look which so
excited the observer does not disappear, but may be perpetuated on some
scale as CMK mares produce within the CMK breeding group. Perhaps the realization
of the unique history behind these mares will contribute to this end.
Imported in 1888: *NAOMI
FIRST ARABIAN MARE TO come to North America and leave modern descent, and
the oldest mare in the Arabian Horse Registry of America, is *NAOMI, foaled
in England in 1877. Her sire and dam YATAGHAN and HAIDEE were brought from
the desert by Capt. Roger Upton. Randolph Huntington, America's earliest
breeder of Arabian horses still represented in modern lines, imported *NAOMI
in 1888. In 1890 *NAOMI foaled the fine chestnut colt ANAZEH, the first
Arabian bred and born on American soil to leave modern descent. ANAZEH was
sired by *LEOPARD, the grey Arabian stallion presented by Sultan Abdul Hamid
II of Turkey to General U.S. Grant in 1878.
mare with many firsts to her credit, though perhaps not of
the show ring variety, *NAOMI was photographed here at age 18, standing
behind the strapping 13-day-old KHALED, her eighth of ten foals. As an individual
*NAOMI must have pleased Randolph Huntington, who by this time was enjoying
no small recognition as one of America's leading breeders of light horses.
Huntington would build his entire Arabian program around this single mare,
and thus *NAOMI would make a far-reaching contribution to the development
of a North American Arabian gene pool via her high-quality descendents.
the most important of *NAOMI's tail-female descendants was to be the Manion-bred
IMAGIDA, dam of the illustrious *RAFFLES daughters GIDA and RAFGIDA and
two sons also by *RAFFLES, IMARAFF and RAFFI. Another distinguished female
line was founded by the straight Maynesboro MADAHA. *NAOMI's descent from
both sons and daughters also included the likes of RAHAS, GHAZI, RABIYAT,
GHAZAYAT, ABU FARWA, ALLA AMARWARD and AURAB, just to name a few of the
famous ones. *NAOMI's sons and daughters were among the finest horses of
their time, and their descendants continue to be so regarded.
1893: *GALFIA and *NEJDME
1893, BY SPECIAL ARRANGEMENT with Abdul Hamid II, Sultan of the Ottoman
Empire, 45 Arabian horses were brought from Syria for exhibition at the
Chicago World's Fair. The Hamidie horses, so named for the Hamidie Hippodrome
Company which sponsored the exhibition, were beset by a series of disasters.
Financial ruin of the company and a fire left 28 horses to be auctioned
Only three mares of the entire group would be given
the opportunity to breed on. In 1894 Peter Bradley purchased the mares *GALFIA
and *PRIDE. The third mare, *NEJDME, was purchased by J.A.P. Ramsdell. *GALFIA
would be the first of the three to produce with her 1895 colt, MANNAKY JR.
by the Hamidie stallion *MANNAKY. The following year *GALFIA again foaled
to *MANNAKY and the filly ZITRA was to establish *GALFIA's tail female line
into modern descent.
In 1898 *NEJDME established the third American mare
line with the birth of NONLIKER, sired by Ramsdell's Ali Pasha Sherif stallion
*SHAHWAN. Unfortunately NONLIKER was the only foal of the magnificent *SHAHWAN
to breed on in America. That *SHAHWAN left scant descent at Crabbet prior
to his importation was to be regretted by the Blunts as well, given the
breeding performance of his daughter YASHMAK. NONLIKER was joined by younger
half-sisters NANSHAN (1902) and NANDA (1905); the *NEJDME lines of DAHURA
and LARKSPUR came to be particularly highly prized.
third Hamidie mare bred on but not in tail female. *PRIDE produced just
one registered foal, the 1902 mare SHEBA sired by MANNAKY JR. SHEBA would
leave an important mark on the breeding program of Albert W. Harris in her
sons NEJDRAN JR (by *NEJDRAN) and EL JAFIL (by *IBN MAHRUSS), sire of Harris'
noteworthy EL SABOK.
Much of the identifying information on the Hamidie
horses, including the original authentication, has been lost, presumably
in the fire. Bits and pieces of information from letters and newspaper articles
have surfaced over the years. Some of the information coming down is conflicting
regarding strains and birthdates, if not the outright identities of some
of the horses. What we do know is that the horses which bred on did so extremely
1900 THE FIRST CRABBET MARE came to America in the person of the BASILISK
granddaughter *BUSHRA. She is registered as imported from the Crabbet Stud
by "Mr. Eustis" but almost certainly went directly to Randolph Huntington's
ownership and produced her American offspring for Homer Davenport.
Blunt considered the family of BASILISK to be one of the best of their early
desert importations. Later, the American breeder Spencer Borden noted the
BASILISK mare line as the "best blood in the world." The BASILISK family
would be well represented among the early imports. *BUTHEYNA, *BARAZA and
*BATTLA followed *BUSHRA.
The BASILISK female line died out at Crabbet, though
it continued to England from the line established by BELKA at the Courthouse
Stud. In America the line flourished notably from the Maynesboro mare BAZRAH.
1905: WILD THYME and RODANIA
BORDEN CAME UPON the scene at the turn of the century. His contribution
to the Arabian horse in America as an importer, breeder and author during
these early days was to be monumental. In 1898 Borden had imported *SHABAKA
from England, a mare by the desertbred MAMELUKE and out of KESIA II, imported
en utero from the desert. *SHABAKA was not to establish a female
line but her influence was realized in a highly valued son, SEGARIO. The
KESIA mare line would in fact never become established here, but was represented
again in Borden's 1905 import, *SHABAKA's half-brother *IMAMZADA, and in
the 1924 Harris import *NURI PASHA [ex RUTH KESIA].
1905 Borden imported two fillies from the Hon. Miss Ethelred Dillon and
introduced the WILD THYME mare line to breed on in America. Borden's yearling
*MAHAL and weanling *NESSA were both daughters of the Crabbet mare RASCHIDA
(Kars x Wild Thyme). Like BASILISK's, WILD THYME's family died out early
at Crabbet, but it was ably perpetuated by both *MAHAL and *NESSA in this
It was a stroke of genius that, also in 1905, Borden
introduced the RODANIA female line to America with his importation of the
dowager queen mother of Crabbet, *ROSE OF SHARON. Borden's coup in obtaining
the most celebrated of Crabbet's early matrons must be considered in light
of her unparalleled international influence.
RODANIA daughters spread the influence of Crabbet breeding to virtually
every other Arabian horse breeding base in the world. *ROSE OF SHARON's
mare line would carry forward in American breeding by her tail female descendants
imported later from Crabbet. Her uniquely American contributions to the
breed came via her son *RODAN and daughter ROSA RUGOSA, dam of the important
Maynesboro sire SIDI.
The two remaining branches of RODANIA's family were
brought to America later and also became firmly established here. The RODANIA
daughter ROSEMARY is represented by *ROKHSA, imported in 1918 by W.R.Brown,
*RAIDA, imported in 1926 by Kellogg, *RISHAFIEH, imported in 1932 by Selby,
and *KADIRA, imported 1939 by J.M. Dickinson. The ROSE OF JERICHO branch
was established by the 1926 Kellogg imports *ROSSANA, *RASIMA and *RASAFA,
and the 1930 Selby ones *RASMINA and *ROSE OF FRANCE.
1906 HOMER DAVENPORT imported 27 Arabian horses directly from the desert.
This importation would be the largest genetic contribution unique to American
Arabian horse breeding. Six of Davenport's desert mares would establish
mare lines, and each would be represented on the leading dams of champions
lists. For many years the leading dam of champions, BINT SAHARA, and her
runner-up daughter FERSARA, are of *WADDUDA's line. SAKI, whose champion
produce record would come to equal BINT SAHARA's, was of *WERDI's family.
in the case of each of these mares, Davenport breeding blended wonderfully
well with that of other early CMK sources, the result being realized in
some of the best representatives of the breed in history. Interestingly,
some of Davenport's desert sources were the same breeders from whom the
Blunts had purchased foundation stock nearly 30 years earlier. The success
Davenport, and later W.R.Brown, Harris, Kellogg, Hearst and Selby realized
in combining Davenport and Crabbet breeding represented in some cases a
recombining of lines derived from the same desert sources.
mare lines survive both in straight Davenport breeding programs and inextricably
within the larger CMK breeding group. Their contribution of classic desert
type and quality can still readily be identified.
1909: BINT HELWA
FROM HOMER DAVENPORT, there was no one to compare to the spirited patronage
of Spencer Borden for the Arabian horse in America at the turn of the century.
Borden's visits to the Crabbet Stud and his lively correspondence with Lady
Anne Blunt were to gain him respect and favor in securing some of the best
individuals of that Stud. And so in 1909 Borden would again bring a grande
dame of Crabbet to American shores, the Ali Pasha Sherif bred *GHAZALA,
daughter of the Crabbet family foundress BINT HELWA.
HELWA's line was a third to take hold in America but die out at Crabbet.
And take hold it did in the two illustrious *GHAZALA daughters, GULNARE
and GUEMURA. Two other branches of the BINT HELWA family would later provide
foundation mares to American CMK breeding in *HAMIDA, *HAZNA and *HILWE.
1910: DAJANIA and *LISA
NEXT YEAR A FIFTH Crabbet family line would reach America in the DAJANIA
mare *NARDA II, imported by F. Lothrop Ames. *NARDA II, a daughter of NARGHILEH,
was purchased in foal to RIJM and the next year foaled *NOAM, a three-quarters
sister to *NASIK, *NUREDDIN II and NESSIMA.
DAJANIA family would be greatly distinguished at Crabbet and in America
as producers of some of the greatest sires in the history of the breed:
the aforementioned *NASIK and *NUREDDIN II, and NASEEM, INDIAN GOLD, *NIZZAM,
INDIAN MAGIC, *SERAFIX, ELECTRIC SILVER and *SILVER DRIFT. In America the
DAJANIA line sires included INDRAFF, RAPTURE and AARAF.
*INDAIA was imported by Roger Selby and *INCORONATA by Kellogg, bringing
the imported family of DAJANIA mares to just four.
in 1910, the mare *LISA was imported by C.P.Hatch. She was listed as having
been "bred in the desert" and registered as black. *LISA's family line survives
via one daughter, ALIXE by *HAURAN. ALIXE's breeder was Warren Delano of
Barrytown, NY. ALIXE in turn produced three daughters by JERREDE (*Euphrates
x *Nejdme), and of these JERAL and NARADA bred on.
1918: FERIDA and SOBHA
MAYNESBORO STUD IN Berlin, NH was founded in 1912 by William Robinson Brown.
Brown's foundation stock was acquired in the beginning from other American
breeders. It was, in fact, via Maynesboro that key links with some of the
earliest CMK bloodlines were to be carried forward.
1918 Brown made an importation of 17 horses from the Crabbet Stud. Brown's
purchase would be a timely one for CMK breeding in that advantage was taken,
purposely or not, of the legal feud between Lady Wentworth and her father
Wilfrid Blunt, after Lady Anne Blunt's death. Certain Crabbet horses were
acquired by Brown which might otherwise never have left the Stud. This was
especially true of the phenomenal *BERK.
The 1918 Maynesboro importation introduced the FERIDA
family to North America in the two-yr-old chestnut filly *FELESTIN. *FELESTIN's
dam FEJR (Rijm x Feluka) also produced the stallions FARIS and FERHAN, sires
in turn of the important English breeding horses RISSALIX and INDIAN GOLD.
A second, more prolific, branch of the FERIDA family
was established eight years later with the importation of the celebrated
FELUKA daughter, *FERDA, by W.K.Kellogg. Ten years after her importation,
half the horses at the Kellogg Ranch would be descended from *FERDA, such
was the value of this FERIDA line mare.
The 1918 Maynesboro importation also brought a seventh
Crabbet family to America in the SOBHA representative, *SIMAWA, a mare who
would later become important to the breeding program of Albert Harris. Selby
and Kellogg would each make astute importations of SOBHA line mares in *SELMNAB
(imported 1930) and *CRABBET SURA (imported 1936).
The most acclaimed branch
of the SOBHA family did not reach America until the 1950s. This was
the line of Lady Wentworth's unforgettable SILVER FIRE.
1921 and 1922: *BALKIS II and
R. BROWN WAS A U.S. ARMY Remount agent, and it was
a major purpose of his breeding program that Arabians be bred as suitable
mounts for cavalry. It was probably with this in mind that in 1921 and '22
he imported Arabian horses from France, a country long esteemed for breeding
Brown's French importation was in keeping with the
tradition of Huntington, Borden, Bradley and Davenport, who touted the utilitarian
supremacy of the Arabian horse, promoting the Arabian for American cavalry
Two of the French mares would establish mare lines
at Maynesboro. The *BALKIS II granddaughter FOLLYAT and the *KOLA daughters
FADIH and FATH were broodmatrons which especially earned respect for the
contribution of French breeding to the CMK foundation.
SOLE REPRESENTATIVE of the Crabbet family of QUEEN OF SHEBA to breed on
in CMK founder lines was *ANA (Dwarka x Amida), imported to America in 1924.
*ANA would produce two daughters for her importer Albert Harris. She was
later sold to Philip Wrigley for whom she was to produce four more daughters
including the notable ADIBIYEH.
*ANA was full sister
to *ALDEBAR, bred by H.R.H. the Prince of Wales and imported by Henry
1928: *NOURA and MAKBULA
RIHANI OF NEW YORK imported three Arabians from the desert in 1928, a stallion
*SAOUD and two mares, *NOURA and her daughter *MUHA. A thin but well-regarded
line was to come from these mares. *NOURA's family would be famously represented
by Margaret Shuey's elegant matron MY BONNIE NYLON.
Selby's Crabbet importation of 1928 introduced the MAKBULA family to America
in the small-statured, exquisite *KAREYMA. *KAREYMA would prove to be one
of Selby's best purchases from Crabbet, judging by the excellence of her
produce. Selby would bring three more representatives of the MAKBULA line
to Ohio in 1930 with the importation of *KIYAMA, *JERAMA and *NAMILLA.
1929 HERMAN FRANK of Los Angeles imported *MALOUMA, the first of two Egyptian
lines to be incorporated into the foundation of CMK breeding. *MALOUMA was
purchased by Kellogg for whom she produced the four daughters which carry
on her line.
1931: *LA TISA
1931 THE CHICAGO INDUSTRIALIST and philanthropist Charles Crane made a trip
to the Middle East and came back with some Arabian horses, gifts from Saudi
Arabia's King Abdul Aziz, who had not met an American before Crane. Crane
dispatched a geologist engineer to Arabia in search of oil and water.
exchange of favors between Crane and the Saudi ruler resulted in ARAMCO's
being established as Saudi Arabia's petroleum exploration and development
partner--a partnership which only too obviously has shaped American foreign
policy to this day.
Crane's two fillies, *LA TISA and *MAHSUDHA, reportedly
were of quality and beauty in keeping with the rest of his venture. *LA
TISA would establish a family which has carried forward into CMK breeding.
1932: BINT YAMAMA
R. BROWN INTRODUCED A second Egyptian mare line to
CMK breeding with the 1932 importation of seven Arabians bred by Prince
Mohammed Ali of Cairo. All were of the BINT YAMAMA family line, which was
perpetuated by the four mares: *RODA and *AZIZA, daughters of NEGMA; *H.H.
MOHAMMED ALI'S HAMAMA and *H.H. MOHAMMED ALI'S HAMIDA, both out of the famed
NEGMA daughter MAHROUSSA. The Maynesboro Egyptian importation had been made
at the same time as Henry Babson's importation of six horses also from Egypt.
Interestingly, the origins of the Egyptian horses
can be traced back in part to Abbas Pasha/Ali Pasha Sherif stock of the
Blunt's day. The exact origin of BINT YAMAMA and her relationship to early
Blunt horses is a mystery yet to be solved.
1934, JIM AND EDNA Draper of Richmond, California brought home five Arabians
from Spain. Four of the five were mares, and all of the same female line,
that of the Spanish ZULIMA through SIRIA. The elegant grey *NAKKLA was purchased
by Kellogg's and incorporated into that breeding program. The Drapers retained
the SIRIA daughters *MECA and *MENFIS (dam of *NAKKLA) and *MECA's daughter
*BARAKAT, breeding them to CMK stallions.
The Draper Spanish mares produced admirably, gaining
a place of pride within the CMK tradition. Edna Draper holds the distinction
of being the last importer of CMK foundation stock still living.
LAST DESERT CONTRIBUTION considered a part of CMK foundation breeding was
the Hearst importation of 1947. This was the largest group of Arabians brought
directly from the Arabian desert countries since that of Homer Davenport.
Hearst Ranch had been established with the purchase of Maynesboro stock
upon that farm's dispersal, which included the Maynesboro sires RAHAS, REHAL,
GHAZI and GULASTRA. Hearst had also purchased Kellogg stock, bring about
a parallel breeding program to that Stud's.
Hearst importation included eight mares (*RAJWA was accompanied by her daughter
*BINT RAJWA), all but one of which contributed to the CMK breeding tradition.
THE "JOURNEY MARE," was the Blunts' second acquisition in the desert, but
it took 75 years before her female line reached America to stay. HAGAR was
purchased to carry Wilfrid Blunt from Aleppo to Baghdad and back to Damascus
on the Blunts' 1878 journey. She proved admirably up to the task and earned
praise from Lady Anne in her journals.
HAGAR was sent to England as part of the foundation
of the Crabbet Stud. She was sold to the Hon. Ethelred Dillon for whose
Puddlicote Stud HAGAR proved a foundress. The first HAGAR breeding reached
America in 1905 via the important Dillon-bred *NESSA's sire *HAURAN and
another HAGAR son, HAIL.
There was still no HAGAR female line in America when
hers became another family lost to Crabbet. The line persisted through Miss
Dillon's ZEM ZEM and through HOWA, foundation mare of the Harwood Stud.
ZEM ZEM and her daughter ZOBEIDE were left to Borden by Miss Dillon's will,
but left no further registered progeny.
It was not until 1953 that the HAGAR family would
reach American shores and be carried on into CMK breeding. This came about
when seven mares from Holland's Rodania Stud (Dr. H.C.E.M. Houtappel) were
imported to New York by T. Cremer. The mares were *CHADIGA, *FAIKA, *LATIFAA,
*FATIMAA, *RITLA, *LEILA NAKHLA and *MISHKA.
HAGAR's line, American breeders had 10 mare families to carry on the Crabbet
THESE, THEN, ARE THE ORIGINAL CMK MARE FAMILIES. They
have been combined in American horse breeding history to form one genetic
legacy uniquely American--CMK. The timeless quality of CMK mares should
be obvious to all fanciers of the Arabian horse, but it would appear to
fall to a few to recognize that an effort must be made to conserve the identity
of these irreplaceable lines for posterity.
reflected the CMK dam line picture before the 1993 revision of the CMK